Map of homicide clusters in Mexico from May 2022 to April 2023

Because some municipios have a low population and homicides tend to be rare occurrences the variance in homicide rates per 100,000 tends to be high. To remove some of the variance, and help discover patterns in the data, the homicide rate in each municipio of the safety map was calculated based on a GAM with a Gaussian Markov random field smoother, with each state included as a treatment variable. Homicides include feminicides.